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Background: Periodontal disease has been reported to play a causative role in acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which may add to the various risk factors associated with coronary heart disease. The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Prevotella intermedia – an established periodontal pathogen – in subgingival plaque samples of chronic periodontitis and AMI patients in order to identify a possible association, and to evaluate the susceptibility of Prevotella intermedia to nine antimicrobial agents. Methods: After undergoing screening for eligibility, a total of 50 subjects were included in the present study. Twenty patients were diagnosed with AMI and generalized chronic periodontitis (Group I), 20 patients were diagnosed with only AMI (Group II), and 10 subjects were healthy controls (Group III). The isolated Prevotella intermedia strains were tested for susceptibility to bacitracin, chloramphenicol, penicillin G, polymyxin, gentamycin, neomycin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, and cefoxitin using an antibiotic zonescale to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). Results: Periodontal pathogens were identified by phenotypic and enzymatic methods. The mean bacterial load of Prevotella intermedia species was higher in Group I compared to Group II and Group III. It was also found that pencillin G, gentamycin, neomycin, tetracycline, cefotaxime, and cefoxitin inhibited 90% of Prevotella intermedia, whereas bacitracin, chloramphenicol, and polymyxin inhibited 80% of Prevotella intermedia. Thus, only 10% of Prevotella intermedia were resistant to these antibiotics. Conclusion: The present study confirms that Prevotella intermedia is associated with chronic periodontitis and AMI.
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